[1] Others emphasise the fact that cross-religious alliances existed, such as the Lutheran duke Maurice of Saxony assisting the Catholic emperor Charles V in the first Schmalkaldic War in 1547 in order to become the Saxon elector instead of John Frederick, his Lutheran cousin, while the Catholic king Henry II of France supported the Lutheran cause in the Second Schmalkaldic War in 1552 to secure French bases in modern-day Lorraine. The Yorkists were successful at Blore Heath (September 23) but were scattered after a skirmish at Ludford Bridge (October 12). This did little to promote allegiance to Spain. This "Spanish Fury" was used by William to reinforce his arguments to ally all the Netherlands' Provinces with him. The Guises then proposed a settlement with a cipher as heir and demanded a meeting of the Estates-General, which was to be held in Blois. However, this was generally regarded as unsatisfactory by both Catholics and Protestants. After seven months, when the city's inhabitants had been reduced to eating weeds and heather, the city surrendered (July 11, 1573). The Protestant army laid siege to several cities in the Poitou and Saintonge regions (to protect La Rochelle), and then Angoulême and Cognac. The war between Hitler'’s Germany and Soviet Russia was fought on a scale unprecedented in human history. On 12 May 1588, a popular uprising raised barricades on the streets of Paris, and Henry III fled the city. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Added to this was the Calvinist teaching that leading citizens had the duty to overthrow an "ungodly" ruler (i.e. Denmark's cause was aided by France, which, together with England, had agreed to help subsidize the war. As the period of sieges subsided, the War of Liberation continued. Bodies were exhumed and corpses were stripped. In 1645 Parliament passed the Self-denying Ordinance, by which all members of either House of Parliament laid down their commands, allowing the re-organization of its main forces into the New Model Army. However, the massacre has significance mainly as a symbol of the Irish perception of Cromwellian cruelty, as far more people died in the subsequent guerrilla warfare and scorched-earth fighting in the country than at infamous massacres such as Drogheda and Wexford. Ireland entered into a continuous state of war with the rebellion of 1641, with most of the island controlled by the Irish Confederates. Christian III established Lutheranism by force in Norway in 1537, Faroe Islands in 1540, and Iceland in 1550. A new phase of the civil war began in 1459 when York, goaded by the queen’s undisguised preparations to attack him, rebelled for the last time. Altering the course of World War II, it shaped the borders and attitudes of Europe for the second half of the 20th Century. This was Alva's downfall. This divisiveness gave Spain the opportunity to send Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma with 20,000 well-trained troops into the Netherlands. Since the Lancastrians had occupied the throne from 1399, the Yorkists might never have pressed a claim but for the near anarchy prevailing in the mid-15th century. The first phase of the fighting was over, except for the reduction of a few pockets of Lancastrian resistance. In 1625, as part of the Thirty Years' War, Christian IV, who was also the Duke of Holstein, agreed to help the Lutheran rulers of neighbouring Lower Saxony against the forces of the Holy Roman Empire by intervening militarily. Her son James VI was raised as a Protestant, later becoming King of England as well as Scotland. Catholics, as well as Protestants, opposed him for eroding the foundations of business upon which the Dutch economy was built. On 20 May the Scottish Parliament sentenced him to death and had him hanged the next day. Christian, however, was forced to retire before the combined forces of Imperial generals Albrecht von Wallenstein and Tilly. Two new forces emerged to oppose Spain. He claimed that he was not bound by the compromise of May 6 and a few days later, Philip assured the Pope that any suspension of the Inquisition was subject to papal approval. While Philip wasted Farnese with ridiculous and useless battles against England and France, Spain had become spread too thin. On his deathbed, Henry III called for Henry of Navarre and begged him, in the name of Statecraft, to become a Catholic, citing the brutal warfare that would ensue if he refused. The Reformation came to Britain and Ireland with King Henry VIII of England's breach with the Catholic Church in 1533. The Mexican-American War was a conflict between the United States and Mexico, fought from April 1846 to February 1848.Won by the Americans and damned by its contemporary critics as expansionist, it resulted in the U.S. gaining more than 500,000 square miles (1,300,000 square km) of Mexican territory extending westward from the Rio Grande to the Pacific Ocean. [7][dubious – discuss][clarification needed], Series of wars waged in Europe from ca. Competing claims to the throne and the beginning of civil war. The Battle of Towton during the Wars of the Roses was one of the deadliest battles ever fought in England. The Yorkists were related to female relatives of Edward III's second and fourth sons, whereas the Lancastrians were connected to Edward through his third son. This led to the Fourth and Fifth Civil wars in 1572 and 1573–1576. In 1592, Farnese died of wounds and exhaustion. Mary set out for Stirling on 26 August 1565 to confront them. 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